Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Virus Entry by the Crude Polysaccharides of Seaweeds and Abalone Viscera In Vitro.
Mar Drugs. 2021 Apr 15 ;19(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15. PMID: 33921174
Much attention is being devoted to the potential of marine sulfated polysaccharides as antiviral agents in preventing COVID-19. In this study, sulfated fucoidan and crude polysaccharides, extracted from six seaweed species (Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll, Laminaria japonica, Hizikia fusiforme, Sargassum horneri, Codium fragile, Porphyra tenera) and Haliotis discus hannai (abalone viscera), were screened for their inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 virus entry. Most of them showed significant antiviral activities at an IC50 of 12~289μg/mL against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in HEK293/ACE2, except for P. tenera (IC50>1000μg/mL). The crude polysaccharide of S. horneri showed the strongest antiviral activity, with an IC50 of 12 μg/mL, to prevent COVID-19 entry, and abalone viscera and H. fusiforme could also inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection with an IC50 of 33 μg/mL and 47 μg/mL, respectively. The common properties ofthese crude polysaccharides, which have strong antiviral activity, are high molecular weight (>800 kDa), high total carbohydrate (62.7~99.1%), high fucose content (37.3~66.2%), and highly branched polysaccharides. These results indicated that the crude polysaccharides from seaweeds and abalone viscera can effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry.