Inhibitory Effect of Thai Purple Rice Husk Extract on Chemically Induced Carcinogenesis in Rats.
Molecules. 2021 Jan 12 ;26(2). Epub 2021 Jan 12. PMID: 33445792
This study investigated the cancer chemopreventive effects of an acidic methanol extract of purple rice husk on chemically induced carcinogenesis in rats. This purple rice husk extract (PRHE) had high polyphenol contents. Vanillic acid was a major phenolic compound in PRHE. Three major anthocyanins found in PRHE were malvidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. PRHE was not toxic and clastogenic in rats. The LDof PRHE was greater than 2000 mg kgbody weight (BW). The oral administration of 300 or 1000 mg kgBW of PRHE for 28 days significantly decreased the number of micronucleated hepatocytes in diethylnitrosamine-initiated rats. The inhibitory mechanisms were associated with the reduction of cytochrome P450 2E1 expression and induction of some detoxifying enzymes in the liver. In addition, treatment with 500 mg kgBW of PRHE for eight weeks did not induce preneoplastic lesions in the liver and colon. It significantly inhibited hepatic glutathione--transferase positive foci formation induced by diethylnitrosamine and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine by suppression of hepatocyte proliferation and induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, PRHE did not present toxicity, clastogenicity or carcinogenicity in rats. It exhibited cancer chemopreventive properties against chemically induced early stages rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Anthocyanins and vanillic acid might be candidate anticarcinogenic compounds in purple rice husk.