Inhibitory effects of protopanaxatriol type ginsenoside fraction (Rgx365) on particulate matter-induced pulmonary injury.
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2019 Mar 27:1-13. Epub 2019 Mar 27. PMID: 30917762
Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM) is associated with elevated pulmonary injury attributed to the loss of vascular barrier integrity. Black ginseng (BG), steamed 9 times and dried ginseng, and its major protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg4, Rg6, Rh4, Rh1, and Rg2) exhibited various biological activities including anti-septic, anti-diabetic, wound healing, immune-stimulatory, and anti-antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of Rgx365 (a protopanaxatriol type rare ginsenosides fraction) on PM-induced lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier disruption and pulmonary inflammation. Permeability, leukocyte migration, activation of proinflammatory proteins, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and histology were examined in PM-treated EC and mice. Rgx365 significantly scavenged PM-induced ROS, inhibited ROS-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activated Akt in purified pulmonary EC, which helped maintain endothelial integrity. Further, Rgx365 reduced vascular protein leakage, leukocyte infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids in PM-induced mouse lung tissues. Data suggested that Rgx365 might exhibit protective effects in PM-induced inflammatory lung injury and vascular hyperpermeability.