Insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition ofα-synuclein aggregation by hydroxytyrosol.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2019 Nov 19:113722. Epub 2019 Nov 19. PMID: 31756328
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the elderly people. To date, drugs able to reverse the disease are not available; the gold standard is levodopa that only relieves clinical symptoms, yet with severe side effects after prolonged administration. Many efforts are underway to find alternative targets for PD prevention or treatment, the most promising beingα-synuclein (Syn). Recently, we reported that oleuropein aglycone (OleA) interferes with amyloid aggregation of Syn both stabilizing its monomeric state and inducing the formation of harmless, off-pathway oligomers. This study is focused at describing the interaction between Syn and hydroxytyrosol(HT), the phenolic moiety and main metabolite of OleA, and the interferences with Syn aggregation by using biophysical and biological techniques. Our results show that HT dose-dependently inhibits Syn aggregation and that covalent and non-covalent binding mediate HT-Syn interaction. HT does not modify the natively unfolded structure of Syn, rather, it stabilizes specific regions of the molecule leading to inhibition of protein fibrillation. Cellular assays showed that HT reduces the toxicity of Syn aggregates. Moreover, Syn aggregates interaction with the cell membrane, an important factor forprion-like properties of Syn on-pathway oligomers, was reduced in cells exposed to Syn aggregates grown in the presence of HT.