An integrative review on the toxicity of Bisphenol A (BPA) released from resin composites used in dentistry.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8. PMID: 33834604
The main aim of this study was to perform an integrative review on the release of bisphenol A (BPA) from resin-matrix composites and potential toxic effects. A bibliographic search was performed on the PubMed platform using the following keywords:"Bisphenol A"OR"BPA"AND"resin composite"OR"composite resin"AND"toxicity"OR"cytotoxicity"OR"release". Inclusion criteria involved in vitro and in vivo studies on the release and toxicity of BPA. Results highlighted the release of BPA from resin-matrix composites due to insufficient polymerization and/or degradation of the polymeric matrix. BPA is part of the organic matrix of resin-matrix composites and may be hydrolysed in human saliva, although studies report that low doses might not be detected by traditional chemical analysis. Studies exposing zebrafish embryos to different concentrations of Bis-GMA, showed 55% mortality at 10μM Bis-GMA while 30% mortality was recorded at 1 μM Bis-GMA. In patients, a BPA concentration of around 2.09 × 10μg/ml was found in the saliva after placement of lingual orthodontic retainers with resin-matrix composites. Also, the BPA molecule can be swallowed and absorbed by the oral/gastrointestinal mucosa, which might result in systemic toxicity. The degradation of resin-matrix composites and release of BPA in oral environment are dependent on the organic matrix content and on the polymerization method. A increased release of BPA can lead to the absorption into oral and gastrointestinal mucosa with high risks of local and systemic toxicity.