Intramembrane cavitation as a unifying mechanism for ultrasound-induced bioeffects. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Intramembrane cavitation as a unifying mechanism for ultrasound-induced bioeffects.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Feb 22 ;108(8):3258-63. Epub 2011 Feb 7. PMID: 21300891
The purpose of this study was to develop a unified model capable of explaining the mechanisms of interaction of ultrasound and biological tissue at both the diagnostic nonthermal, noncavitational (<100 mW· cm(-2)) and therapeutic, potentially cavitational (>100 mW· cm(-2)) spatial peak temporal average intensity levels. The cellular-level model (termed"bilayer sonophore") combines the physics of bubble dynamics with cell biomechanics to determine the dynamic behavior of the two lipid bilayer membrane leaflets. The existence of such a unified model could potentially pave the way to a number of controlled ultrasound-assisted applications, including CNS modulation and blood-brain barrier permeabilization. The model predicts that the cellular membrane is intrinsically capable of absorbing mechanical energy from the ultrasound field and transforming it into expansions and contractions of the intramembrane space. It further predicts that the maximum area strain is proportional to the acoustic pressure amplitude and inversely proportional to the square root of the frequency (ε A,max ∝ P(A)(0.8f - 0.5) and is intensified by proximity to free surfaces, the presence of nearby microbubbles in free medium, and the flexibility of the surrounding tissue. Model predictions were experimentally supported using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of multilayered live-cell goldfish epidermis exposed in vivo to continuous wave (CW) ultrasound at cavitational (1 MHz) and noncavitational (3 MHz) conditions. Our results support the hypothesis that ultrasonically induced bilayer membrane motion, which does not require preexistence of air voids in the tissue, may account fora variety of bioeffects and could elucidate mechanisms of ultrasound interaction with biological tissue that are currently not fully understood.