Huperzine A activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and enhances the nonamyloidogenic pathway in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Apr ;36(5):1073-89. Epub 2011 Feb 2. PMID: 21289607
Huperzine A (HupA) is a reversible and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and it has multiple targets when used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. In this study, we searched for new mechanisms by which HupA could activate Wnt signaling and reduce amyloidosis in AD brain. A nasal gel containing HupA was prepared. No obvious toxicity of intranasal administration of HupA was found in mice. HupA was administered intranasally toβ-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein and presenilin-1 double-transgenic mice for 4 months. We observed an increase in ADAM10 and a decrease in BACE1 and APP695 protein levels and, subsequently, a reduction in Aβ levels and Aβ burden were present in HupA-treated mouse brain, suggesting that HupA enhances the nonamyloidogenic APP cleavage pathway. Importantly, our results further showed that HupA inhibited GSK3α/β activity, and enhanced the β-catenin level in the transgenic mouse brain and in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing Swedish mutation APP, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of HupAis not related simply to its AChE inhibition and antioxidation, but also involves other mechanisms, including targeting of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in AD brain.