Wound Healing Effect of Kaempferol in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Rats.
J Surg Res. 2019 Jan ;233:284-296. Epub 2018 Sep 4. PMID: 30502261
BACKGROUND: Flavonoids have previously been suggested to play a role in wound healing. To date, however, limited information is available on the wound healing effect of kaempferol (KM), which belongs to the class of flavonoids. The objective of this study was to determine the wound healing effects of KM.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The wound healing effects of KM with two different concentrations (0.5% and 1% [weight/weight, w/w]) were evaluated in incisional and excisional wound models on diabetic and nondiabetic rats by macroscopic, biomechanical, biochemical, and histopathological analyses. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. The KM ointments were prepared using a mixture of glycol stearate:propylene glycol:liquid paraffin (3:6:1); 0.5 g of the ointments were topically applied on the wounded areas once a day for 7 and 14 d. On days 0, 7, and 14, wounds were photographed, and macroscopic examination of the wounds was performed. After 7 and 14 d, hydroxyproline levels, biomechanical analysis, and histopathological parameters (reepithelialization, thickness of granulation tissue, angiogenesis, presence of inflammation, deposition of collagen, presence of fibrosis, degree of dermal inflammation, and number of mast cells) were assessed.
RESULTS: The best wound healing effect was observed in the diabetic excisional and nondiabetic incisional wounds (92.12% and 94.17%, respectively) treated with 1% (w/w) KM ointment for 14 d according to macroscopic examination. The nondiabetic excisional (14th day) and incisional (7th day) wounds treated with 1% (w/w) KM ointment showed statistically higher levels of hydroxyproline than the control groups (2.84 and 2.07 μg/mg, respectively, P < 0.01). Reepithelialization scores of KM-treated diabetic and nondiabetic excisional wounds on both 7 and 14 d (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) and incisional wounds on the day 14 (P < 0.05) were significantly higher than controls. The maximum tensile strength was observed in nondiabetic and diabetic groups (0.92 and 0.82 g/s, respectively) treated with 0.5% (w/w) KM ointment on day 14.
CONCLUSIONS: Thus, KM appears to be an effective topical wound healing agent in the treatment of both nondiabetic and diabetic wounds.