Kaempferol enhances intestinal barrier function. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Kaempferol enhances intestinal barrier function through the cytoskeletal association and expression of tight junction proteins in Caco-2 cells.
J Nutr. 2011 Jan;141(1):87-94. Epub 2010 Nov 10. PMID: 21068182
Department of Biofunctional Science and Technology, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8528, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid present in fruits, vegetables, and teas, provides beneficial effects for human health. We investigated the promotive effect of kaempferol on tight junction (TJ) barrier integrity in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER; a TJ integrity marker) across the monolayers rapidly and markedly increased during the first 6 h after kaempferol administration and remained elevated until 48 h without any changes in the lucifer yellow or dextran fluxes. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that kaempferol promoted the actin cytoskeletal association of the TJ proteins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, occludin, claudin-1, claudin-3, and claudin-4, which was associated with the increase in TER. Kaempferol-mediated ZO-2 and claudin-4 expression was relatively smaller or occurred later than the kaempferol-promoted cytoskeletal association. Confocal microscopy showed that kaempferol-induced assembly of occludin and claudin-3 occurred at the TJ at 6 h postadministration. Extraction of cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin suppressed the kaempferol-mediated increase in TER. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed that the kaempferol treatment increased the TJ protein distributions in the cholesterol-rich lipid microdomain fraction. Taken together, these results indicate that the membrane lipid microdomain is involved in the kaempferol-mediated promotion of TJ protein assembly and intestinal TJ integrity.