Therapeutic effects of kefir grain Lactobacillus-derived extracellular vesicles in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced inflammatory bowel disease.
J Dairy Sci. 2018 Oct ;101(10):8662-8671. Epub 2018 Aug 9. PMID: 30100498
M K Seo
Kefir is a fermented product from yeast and lactic acid bacteria, and has been associated with various health benefits including relieving inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, it has been shown that gram-positive bacteria produce extracellular vesicles (EV). The EV could be appearing as potentially important mediators of cell to cell interaction. In this study, we explored the role of kefir grain Lactobacillus-derived EV in modulating inflammation responses via alleviating the production of inflammatory cytokines in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced inflammation in Caco-2 cells and the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced inflammatory bowel disease mouse model. Kefir-derived Lactobacillus EV were isolated by ultracentrifugation of the culture medium of 3 different kefir-derived strains (i.e., Lactobacillus kefir, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, and Lactobacillus kefirgranum). Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed that the size of isolated kefir-derived Lactobacillus EV was within 80 to 400 nm, and kefir-derived Lactobacillus EV uptake into recipient Caco-2 cells was confirmed by fluorescence labeling. Treatment of each kefir-derived Lactobacillus EV onto TNF-α-stimulated Caco-2 cells significantly reduced the level of both mRNA expression and secretion of IL-8, and Western blot analysis revealed that such an effect was related to inhibition of TNF-α signaling mediated by reducing the phosphorylation of p65, a subunit of NF-kB. Subsequent administration of kefir-derived Lactobacillus EV into inflammatory bowel disease-induced mice significantly alleviated the body weight loss and rectal bleeding, and enhanced stool consistency. Histological examination showed that kefir-derived Lactobacillus EV substantially reduced the infiltration of transmural leukocytes and loss of goblet cells within the colon, and the serum level of myeloperoxidase was significantly lower in the EV-treated group than control group. Our study demonstrates that kefir-derived Lactobacillus EV can be potentially used for developing innovative strategies for alleviating inflammatory bowel disease.