Kgengwe seeds increase circulating levels of IL-10 and EPO. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Anti-atherogenic properties of Kgengwe () seed powder in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice are mediated through beneficial alterations in inflammatory pathways.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2021 Feb ;46(2):169-177. Epub 2020 Aug 26. PMID: 32846097
Kgengwe fruits are commonly consumed in sub-Saharan countries. Recent reports indicated low coronary artery disease rates in those regions. To investigate anti-atherogenic properties and potential mechanisms of action of Kgengwe seed powder (KSP), male low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDL-r-KO) mice were fed with an atherogenic diet supplemented with (treated,= 10) or without (controls,= 10) 10% (/) KSP for 20 weeks. Proximate analysis revealed that KSP contained 38% fibre and 15% lipids. KSP supplementation was not associated with significant changes in body weight gain rate, food intake, and plasma lipid levels. However, the average atherosclerotic lesion size in the aortic roots in the KSP-treated group was 58% smaller than that in the control group (0.26 vs 0.11 mm, <0.05). This strong anti-atherogenic effect was associated with significant increases in the average plasma levels of certain cytokines such as IL-10 (6 vs 13 pg/mL, <0.05), GM-CSF (0.1 vs 0.2 pg/mL, <0.05), and EPO (7 vs 16 pg/mL, <0.05) along with reductions in the average levels of plasma MCP-1 (19 vs 14 pg/mL, <0.05) and MIP-2 (28 vs 13 pg/mL, <0.05). Except for relatively high levels of saturated fatty acids, KSP possesses balanced nutrient compositions with strong anti-atherogenic properties, which may be mediated through alterations in inflammatory pathways. Additional studies warrant confirmation and mechanism(s) of action of such effects.Kgengwe seeds prevent atherogenesis in LDL-r-KO mice. Kgengwe seeds increase circulating levels of IL-10 and EPO. No reduction in plasma total cholesterol levels.