Beneficial Outcomes of Kimchi Prepared with Amtak Baechu Cabbage and Salting in Brine Solution: Anticancer Effects in Pancreatic and Hepatic Cancer Cells.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2018 ;37(2):151-161. PMID: 30055550
This study investigated the anticancer effects of kimchi prepared using the standard Baechu cabbage and Amtak Baechu cabbage; salting was achieved by either the dry salt treatment or brine solution. Four different kimchi samples were prepared for this study: (1) the standard Baechu cabbage and dry salt treatment method (SK-D); (2) the Amtak Baechu cabbage and dry salt treatment method (AK-D); (3) the standard Baechu cabbage and brine solution treatment method (SK-B); and (4) the Amtak Baechu cabbage and brine solution treatment method (AK-B). The anticancer effects of kimchi were evaluated using human pancreas cancer cells (Capan-2) and human liver cancer cells (HepG2). Both cancer cells showed a significant increase in cell growth inhibition when exposed to AK-D and AK-B compared with SK-D and SK-B (p<0.05). At 2.0 mg/mL, the inhibition of Capan-2 cells was more than doubled after treatment with AK-B and AK-D compared with SK-B and SK-D, but was only 1.2 times in HepG2 cells. Assessment of mRNA and proteins related to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest revealed a significant increase of p21 levels after AK-D and AK-B treatment compared with SK-D and SK-B. In addition, the ongoing cytotoxic effects were significantly higher with AK-B compared with AK-D (p<0.05). In Western blot analysis, the anticancer effects were more apparent in Capan-2 cells than in the HepG2 cells. Overall, these results indicate that kimchi made with Amtak Baechu cabbage and treated with brine solution (AK-B) had a superior anticancer potential against both types of cancer cells, with the effects being greater in pancreatic cancer cells compared with liver cancer cells.