Korean Red Ginseng aqueous extract improves markers of mucociliary clearance by stimulating chloride secretion.
J Ginseng Res. 2021 Jan ;45(1):66-74. Epub 2019 Sep 13. PMID: 33437158
Background: Abnormal chloride (Cl) transport has a detrimental impact on mucociliary clearance in both cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF chronic rhinosinusitis. Ginseng is a medicinal plant noted to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study aims to assess the capability of red ginseng aqueous extract (RGAE) to promote transepithelial Clsecretion in nasal epithelium.
Methods: Primary murine nasal septal epithelial (MNSE) [wild-type (WT) and transgenic CFTR], fisher-rat-thyroid (FRT) cells expressing human WT CFTR, and TMEM16A-expressing human embryonic kidney cultures were utilized for the present experiments. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and airway surface liquid (ASL) depth measurements were performed using micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). Mechanisms underlying transepithelial Cltransport were determined using pharmacologic manipulation in Ussing chambers and whole-cell patch clamp analysis.
Results: RGAE (at 30μg/mL of ginsenosides) significantly increased Cltransport [measured as change in short-circuit current (ΔI = μA/cm)] when compared with control in WT and CFTRMNSE (WT vs control = 49.8±2.6 vs 0.1+/-0.2, CFTR = 33.5±1.5 vs 0.2±0.3, p < 0.0001). In FRT cells, the CFTR-mediated ΔIattributed to RGAE was small (6.8± 2.5 vs control, 0.03 ± 0.01, p < 0.05). In patch clamp, TMEM16A-mediated currents were markedly improved with co-administration of RGAE and uridine 5-triphosphate (8406.3 +/- 807.7 pA) over uridine 5-triphosphate (3524.1 +/- 292.4 pA) or RGAE alone (465.2 +/- 90.7 pA) (p < 0.0001). ASL and CBF were significantly greater with RGAE (6.2+/-0.3m vs control, 3.9+/-0.09m; 10.4+/-0.3 Hz vs control, 7.3 ± 0.2 Hz; < 0.0001) in MNSE.
Conclusion: RGAE augments ASL depth and CBF by stimulating Clsecretion through CaCC, which suggests therapeutic potential in both CF and non-CF chronic rhinosinusitis.