In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of Korean Red Ginseng-derived components.
J Ginseng Res. 2016 Oct ;40(4):437-444. Epub 2016 Aug 24. PMID: 27746698
BACKGROUND: Although Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has been traditionally used for a long time, its anti-inflammatory role and underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have been poorly understood. In this study, the anti-inflammatory roles of KRG-derived components, namely, water extract (KRG-WE), saponin fraction (KRG-SF), and nonsaponin fraction (KRG-NSF), were investigated.
METHODS: To check saponin levels in the test fractions, KRG-WE, KRG-NSF, and KRG-SF were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-inflammatory roles and underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of these components were investigated using a macrophage-like cell line (RAW264.7 cells) and an acute gastritis model in mice.
RESULTS: Of the tested fractions, KGR-SF (but not KRG-NSF and KRG-WE) markedly inhibited the viability of RAW264.7 cells, and splenocytes at more than 500μg/mL significantly suppressed NO production at 100 μg/mL, diminished mRNA expression of inflammatory genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-β at 200 μg/mL, and completely blocked phagocytic uptake by RAW264.7 cells. All three fractions suppressed luciferase activity triggered by interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), but not that triggered by activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B. Phospho-IRF3 and phospho-TBK1 were simultaneously decreased in KRG-SF. Interestingly, all these fractions, when orally administered, clearly ameliorated the symptoms of gastric ulcer in HCl/ethanol-induced gastritis mice.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that KRG-WE, KRG-NSF, and KRG-SF might have anti-inflammatory properties, mostly because of the suppression of the IRF3 pathway.