Effect of Korean Red Ginseng extract on colorectal lung metastasis through inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via transforming growth factor-β1/Smad-signaling-mediated Snail/E-cadherin expression.
J Ginseng Res. 2019 Jan ;43(1):68-76. Epub 2017 Aug 19. PMID: 30662295
Background: In colorectal cancer (CRC), 40-60% of patients develop metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal and intricate process that increases the metastatic potential of CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE) on colorectal metastasis through inhibition of EMT and the metastatic abilities of CRC cells.
Methods: To investigate the effect of RGE on the metastatic phenotypes of CRC cells, CT26 and HT29 cells were evaluated by using an adhesion assay, a wound-healing assay, an invasion assay, zymography, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Western-blot analysis was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of RGE, which showed an inhibitory effect on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced EMT in HT29 cells. Additionally, the antimetastatic effect of RGE was evaluated in a mouse model of lung metastasis injected with CT26 cells.
Results: RGE decreased the adhesion and migration ability of the CT26 cells and TGF-β1-treated HT29 cells. The invasion ability was also reduced by RGE treatment through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activity. Moreover, RGE suppressed the TGF-β1-induced EMT via TGF-β1/Smad-signaling-mediated Snail/E-cadherin expression in HT29 cells and lung tissuein CT26 tumor-bearing mice.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that RGE inhibited colorectal lung metastasis through a reduction in metastatic phenotypes, such as migration, invasion, and the EMT of CRC cells.