Krill oil extract suppresses the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Krill oil extract suppresses the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells through activation of caspase 3/9.
Nutr Metab (Lond). 2019 ;16:53. Epub 2019 Aug 17. PMID: 31428181
Abilasha Gayani Jayathilake
Background: Currently available treatments for colorectal cancer (CRC) associate with numerous side-effects that reduce patients' quality of life. The effective nutraceuticals with high anti-proliferative efficacy and low side-effects are desirable. Our previous study has reported that free fatty acids extract (FFAE) of krill oil induced apoptosis of CRC cells, possibly associated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The aims of this study were to compare the anti-proliferative efficacy of FFAE from krill oil on CRC cells with commonly used chemotherapeutic drug, Oxaliplatin, and to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of krill oil with a focus on intrinsic mitochondrial death pathway.
Methods: Three human CRC cell lines, including DLD-1, HT-29 and LIM-2405, and one mouse CRC cell line, CT-26, were treated with FFAE of KO and the bioactive components of krill oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 24 h and 48 h. Similarly, these cell lines were treated with Oxaliplatin, a commonly used drug for CRC treatment, for 24 h. The effects of FFAE of KO, EPA, DHA and Oxaliplatin on cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined via WST-1, JC-10, and ROS assays respectively. The expression of caspase-3, caspase-9 and DNA damage following treatments of FFAE of KO was investigated via western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
Results: The FFAE of KO, EPA and DHA significantly inhibited cell proliferation and increased formation of ROS in all four cell lines ( 0.01). A small dose of FFAE from KO ranged from 0.06 μL/100 μL to 0.12 μL/100 μL containing low concentrations of EPA (0.13-0.52 μM) and DHA (0.06-0.26 μM) achieved similar anti-proliferative effect as Oxaliplatin ( 0.05). Treatments with the FFAE of KO, EPA and DHA (2:1 ratio) resulted in a significant increase in the mitochondrial membrane potential ( < 0.001). Furthermore, the expression of active forms of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was significantly increased following the treatment of FFAE of KO.
Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated that the anti-proliferative effects of krill oil on CRC cells are comparable with that of Oxaliplatin, and its anti-proliferative property is associated with the activation of caspase 3/9 in the CRC cells.