Functional Probiotic Characterization and In Vivo Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of Lactobacillus helveticus Isolated from Fermented Cow Milk.
J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016 Oct 28 ;26(10):1675-1686. PMID: 27435541
We characterized the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus helveticus strains KII13 and KHI1 isolated from fermented cow milk by in vitro and in vivo studies. The strains exhibited tolerance to simulated orogastrointestinal condition, adherence to Caco-2 cells, and antimicrobial activity. Both L. helveticus strains produced bioactive tripeptides, isoleucylprolyl-proline and valyl-prolyl-proline, during fermentation of milk. KII13 showed higher in vitro cholesterol-lowering activity (47%) compared with KHI1 (28%) and L. helveticus ATCC 15009 (22%), and hence, it was selected for in vivo study of cholesterol-lowering activity in atherogenic diet-fed hypercholesterolemic mice. For the study, mice were divided into four groups (viz., normal diet control group, atherogenic diet control group (HCD), KII13- atherogenic diet group (HCD-KII13), and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121-atherogenic diet group (HCD-L.ac) as positive control). The serum total cholesterol level was significantly decreased by 8.6% and 7.78% in the HCD-KII13 and HCD-L.ac groups (p<0.05), respectively, compared with the HCD group. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in both HCD-KII13 and HCD-L.ac groups were decreased by 13% and 11%, respectively, compared with the HCD group (both, p<0.05). Analysis of cholesterol metabolism-related gene expression in mice liver showed increased expression of LDLR and SREBF2 genes in mice fed with KII13. By comparing all the results, we conclude that L. helveticus KII13 could be used as a potential probiotic strain to produce antihypertensive peptides and reduce serum cholesterol.