GG Ameliorated Long-Term Exposure to TiONanoparticles Induced Microbiota-Mediated Liver and Colon Inflammation and Fructose-Caused Metabolic Abnormality in Metabolism Syndrome Mice.
J Agric Food Chem. 2021 Sep 1 ;69(34):9788-9799. Epub 2021 Aug 12. PMID: 34382390
A huge number of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiONPs) exist in confectionery foods, which is a high-risk factor for development of diet-induced metabolism syndrome (MetS). In this study, we built a high fructose drinking-induced MetS mouse model, and oral intake of 20 mg/kg TiONPs was administered for 8 weeks. Significant pathological changes and inflammatory factors of overproduction were detected in the liver and colon. The 16S rDNA sequencing analysis results indicated that TiONPs evidently and further perturbed the gut microbiota diversity, compositions, and KEGG pathways in MetS mice. Fecal microbiota transplant experiment proved that TiONPs-altered gut microbiota drives liver and colon inflammation damage. More importantly, oral supplementation ofGG (LGG) ameliorated not only the TiONPs-induced inflammation but also the fructose-caused metabolic abnormality. LGG recovered the gut dysbiosis and decreased the abundance of inflammation-related bacteria (,, and), thereby protecting against TiONPs-induced severe inflammation damage. Our study suggests the necessity of assessing the toxic effects of foodborne nanoparticles on the chronic disease population and potential usefulness of probiotics as prophylactic and therapeutic.