Lactobacillus salivarius reverse antibiotic-induced lung defense impairment in a ventilator model.
J Transl Med. 2018 Aug 13 ;16(1):225. Epub 2018 Aug 13. PMID: 30103798
BACKGROUND: Widespread use of antibiotics in the intensive care unit is a potential cause of the emergence of hospital-acquired pneumonia. This study determined whether Lactobacillus salivarius feeding could reverse antibiotic-induced lung defense impairment in a ventilator model.
METHODS: C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice received mechanical ventilation for 3 h after intramuscular antibiotic treatment for 6 days. Treatment with dead Lactobacillus salivarius and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) feeding were used to stimulate antibacterial protein expression in the intestine. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intestinal mucosa was detected using 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The peroxynitrite production of alveolar macrophages (AMs) was measured using dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidation assay. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, was orally administered to mice receiving antibiotics with FOS feeding.
RESULTS: Antibiotic treatment decreased Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) phagocytic activity and activity of AMs and protein expression of regenerating islet-derived protein 3β (Reg3β) as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the intestinal mucosa in the ventilator model. Antibiotic treatment also decreased ROS production in the intestinal mucosa, peroxynitrite production of AMs, and RELMβ expression as well as NF-κB DNA binding activity of the intestinal mucosa inWT mice but not in MyD88mice. Treatment with dead L. salivarius or FOS feeding increased ROS production, bacterial killing activity, and protein expression of Reg3β as well as TLR4 in the intestinal mucosa and reversed the inhibitory effects of antibiotics on PA phagocytic activity of AMs.
CONCLUSION: Taken together with the finding that ablation of FOS-induced intestinal ROS using NAC decreased peroxynitrite production as well as PA phagocytic activity of AMs and protein expression of CRP-ductin, IL-17, Reg3β, and RELMβ in the intestinal mucosa, we conclude that commensal microflora plays a key role in stimulating lung immunity. Intestinal ROS plays a role as a predictive indicator and modulator of pulmonary defense mechanisms. Antibiotic treatment reduces lung defense against PA infection through the decrease in intestinal Reg3β and TLR4 expression. Treatment with dead L. salivarius or FOS feeding reverses the antibiotic-induced lung defense impairment through the intestinal ROS/MyD88 pathways.