Lipophilic Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Exerts Anti-Proliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effects on PC3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells and Suppresses PC3 Xenograft Tumor Growth in Vivo.
J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Jan 9 ;67(1):229-235. Epub 2018 Dec 28. PMID: 30562012
The in vitro antiprostate cancer activity of lipophilic grape seed proanthocyanidin (LGSP) against the PC3 cell line was evaluated by MTT assay, flow cytometry, and immunoblot analysis, and the in vivo antiprostate cancer effect was evaluated by a PC3-derived mouse xenograft model via oral gavage LGSP. Ki67 and cleaved caspase 3 immunostaining experiments were performed in tumor tissues. LGSP exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on PC3 cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Treatment with LGSP resulted in a G1 phase cell cycle arrest in PC3 cells, which was further confirmed by decreasing the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK 4 and increasing the expression of the tumor suppressors p21 and p27. Furthermore, activation of cleaved fragments of caspases 3, caspases 9, and PARP indicated that LGSP-induced apoptosis is caspase-dependent. Upstream of caspase cascade, LGSP increased the cytochrome c release in cytoplasm. After treatment with LGSP, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio also decreased in PC3 cells. In tumor studies, LGSP inhibited the growth of PC3-derived mouse xenografts by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Our findings suggest that LGSP is an effective antiprostate cancer component and deserves further study.