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Abstract Title:

Effects of Listening to Binaural Beats on Anxiety Levels and Pain Scores in Male Patients Undergoing Cystoscopy and Ureteral Stent Removal: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Abstract Source:

J Endourol. 2021 Jan ;35(1):54-61. Epub 2020 Nov 20. PMID: 33107329

Abstract Author(s):

Mahmut Taha Ölçücü, Kayhan Yılmaz, Kaan Karamık, Yahya Okuducu, Çağatay Özsoy, Yasin Aktaş, Serdar Çakır, Mutlu Ateş

Article Affiliation:

Mahmut Taha Ölçücü

Abstract:

To investigate the effects of pure binaural beats on anxiety and pain scores in male patients undergoing diagnostic cystoscopy (DC) and ureteral stent removal (USR) under local anesthesia.This was a prospective, randomized placebo-controlled study. Patients in the DC group (DCG) and USR group (USRG) were divided into three subgroups according to interventions applied; DCG-1 and USRG-1, patients listened to binaural beats; DCG-2 and USRG-2, patients listened to classical music; and DCG-3 and USRG-3, patients wore headphones, but were not exposed to audio (control group). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were used for measuring anxiety and pain scores, respectively. Demographic data, initial STAI, tolerance rate of interventions, terminal STAI (STAI-T), differences of STAI (delta STAI, STAI-D), and VAS scores were compared.Between July 2019 and March 2020, a total of 252 and 159 eligible male patients for DCG and USRG were included, respectively. After exclusions, remaining patients were DCG-1, = 61; DCG-2, = 73; DCG-3, = 75; USRG-1, = 41; USRG-2, = 50; and USRG-3, = 52. The tolerance rate in binaural beat groups was significantly lower than in other groups ( < 0.05 for all). There were significant decreases in terms of STAI-T when DCG-1 and DCG-2 were compared with DCG-3 and USRG-1 and USRG-2 were compared with USRG-3 ( < 0.05 for all). There were significant decreases in STAI-D scores when DCG-1 and DCG-2 were compared with DCG-3 and when USRG-1 and USRG-2 were compared with USRG-3 ( < 0.001 for all). Binaural beat groups had significantly lower VAS scores than other groups and classical music groups had significantly lower VAS scores than control groups ( < 0.05 for all).Listening to pure binaural beats may be a simple and effective method to reduce anxiety levels and pain scores associated with the DC and USR procedures in males.

Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links
Therapeutic Actions : Music : CK(1192) : AC(132)

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