Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease in Shenyang, China.
PLoS One. 2011 ;6(6):e20827. Epub 2011 Jun 10. PMID: 21695220
BACKGROUND: The relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in human is controversial, and there is little information about how exposures to ambient air pollution contribution to the mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to ambient-air pollution increases the risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among humans to examine the association between compound-air pollutants [particulate matter<10µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))] and mortality in Shenyang, China, using 12 years of data (1998-2009). Also, stratified analysis by sex, age, education, and income was conducted for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality. The results showed that an increase of 10 µg/m(3) in a year average concentration of PM(10) corresponds to 55% increase in the risk of a death cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51 to 1.60) and 49% increase in cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.53),respectively. The corresponding figures of adjusted HR (95%CI) for a 10 µg/m(3) increase in NO(2) was 2.46 (2.31 to 2.63) for cardiovascular mortality and 2.44 (2.27 to 2.62) for cerebrovascular mortality, respectively. The effects of air pollution were more evident in female that in male, and nonsmokers and residents with BMI<18.5 were more vulnerable to outdoor air pollution.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with the death of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese populations.