Maintenance proton pump inhibition therapy and risk of oesophageal cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2018 04 ;53:172-177. Epub 2018 Feb 22. PMID: 29477057
BACKGROUND: The association of long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with oesophageal adenocarcinoma has been poorly defined. Our aim was to assess the risk of oesophageal cancer assessing confounding by indication.
METHODS: This population-based cohort study included all 796,492 adults exposed to maintenance therapy with PPIs in Sweden in 2005-2012. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (and squamous cell carcinoma as a comparison) among long-term PPI users relative to the corresponding background population. The different indications for maintenance PPI therapy were analysed separately.
RESULTS: Among all individuals using maintenance PPI therapy, the overall SIR of oesophageal adenocarcinoma was 3.93 (95% CI 3.63-4.24). The SIRs of adenocarcinoma were increased also among individuals without gastro-oesophageal reflux disease who used PPIs for indications not associated with any increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. For example, the SIRs among participants using maintenance PPI therapy because of maintenance treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin were 2.74 (95% CI 1.96-3.71) and 2.06 (95% CI 1.60-2.60), respectively. The SIRs of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma were increased for most investigated indications, but to a lesser degree than for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the long term use of PPIs is associated with increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in the absence of other risk factors. Long term use of PPIs should be addressed with caution.