Low doses of BPA induced abnormal mitochondrial fission and hypertrophy in human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes via the calcineurin-DRP1 signaling pathway: A comparison between XX and XY cardiomyocytes.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2019 Dec 9:114850. Epub 2019 Dec 9. PMID: 31830493
Humans are inevitably exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) via multiple exposure ways. Thus, attention should be raised to the possible adverse effects related to low doses of BPA. Epidemiological studies have outlined BPA exposure and the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (such as cardiac hypertrophy), which has been confirmed to be sex-specific in rodent animals and present in few in vitro studies, although the molecular mechanism is still unclear. However, whether BPA at low doses equivalent to human internal exposure level could induce cardiac hypertrophy via the calcineurin-DRP1 signaling pathway by disrupting calcium homeostasis is unknown. To address this, human embryonic stem cell (H1, XY karyotype and H9, XX karyotype)-derived cardiomyocytes (CM) were purified and applied to study the low-dose effects of BPA on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In our study, when H1- and H9-CM were exposed to noncytotoxic BPA (8 ng/ml), markedly elevated hypertrophic-related mRNA expression levels (such as NPPA and NPPB), enhanced cellular area and reduced ATP supplementation, demonstrated the hypertrophic cardiomyocyte phenotype in vitro. The excessive fission produced by BPA was promoted by CnAβ-mediated dephosphorylation of DRP1. At the molecular level, the increase in cytosolic Calevels by low doses of BPA could discriminate between H1- and H9-CM, which may suggest a potential sex-specific hypertrophic risk in cardiomyocytes in terms of abnormal mitochondrial fission and ATP production by impairing CnAβ-DRP1 signaling. In CnAβ-knockdown cardiomyocytes, these changes were highly presented in XX-karyotyped cells, rather than in XY-karyotyped cells.