Low Doses of Thymoquinone and Ferulic Acid in Combination Effectively Inhibit Proliferation of Cultured MDA-MB 231 Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells.
Nutr Cancer. 2020 Mar 28:1-8. Epub 2020 Mar 28. PMID: 32223348
Thymoquinone (TQ) and Ferulic Acid (FA) are natural ingredients fromand, respectively. Individually both TQ and FA have shown anticancer properties in a variety of cancer cell lines. We investigated the combination effect of lower doses of TQ and FA on proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle of a breast cancer cell line MDA-MB 231. Cells were treated with various concentrations of TQ, FA and various combinations of TQ + FA for 48 hrs. Cell proliferation was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, whereas cell cycle and apoptosis were measured with flow-cytometry after propidium iodide staining and Annexin-V/FITC staining, respectively. TQ (50 and 100 µM) andFA (450 µM), and all the doses of TQ and FA in combination significantly decreased cell proliferation. 25 µM TQ and 250 µM FA individually did not affect cell proliferation but in combination significantly reduced cell proliferation. TQ at 50 µM caused significant apoptosis, whereas, FAdid not affect apoptosis. Thesedata suggest that in combination, relatively lower doses of TQ and FA are effective in decreasing cancer cell proliferation, and thus have anticancer therapeutic potential. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings in an animal model of breast cancer.