Extraction and Hypolipidemic Activity of Low Molecular Weight Polysaccharides Isolated fromFruits.
Biomed Res Int. 2020 ;2020:2043785. Epub 2020 Oct 22. PMID: 33145340
Three novel low molecular weight polysaccharides (RLP-1a, RLP-2a, and RLP-3a) with 9004, 8761, and 7571 Da were first obtained by purifying the crude polysaccharides from the fruits of a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. The conditions for polysaccharides from thefruit (RLP) extraction were optimized by the response surface methodology, and the optimal conditions were as follows: extraction temperature, 93°C; extraction time, 2.8 h; water to raw material ratio, 22; extraction frequency, 3. Structural characterization showed that RLP-1a consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose, and galactose with the ratio of 3.14 : 8.21 : 1 : 1.37 : 4.90, whereas RLP-2a was composed of rhamnose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with the ratio of 1.70 : 1 : 93.59 : 2.73, and RLP-3a was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with the ratio of 6.04 : 26.51 : 2.05 : 1 : 3.17 : 31.77. The NMR analyses revealed that RLP-1a, RLP-2a, and RLP-3a contained 6, 4, and 6 types of glycosidic linkages, respectively. RLP-1a and RLP-3a exhibited distinct antioxidant abilities on the superoxide anions, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and hydroxyl radicals. RLPs could decrease the serum lipid levels, elevate the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, enhance the antioxidant enzymes levels, and upregulate of FADS2, ACOX3, and SCD-1 which involved in the lipid metabolic processes and oxidative stress in the high-fat diet-induced rats. These results suggested that RLPs ameliorated the high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced lipid metabolism disturbance in the rat liver through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Low molecular weight polysaccharides of RLP could be served as a novel potential functional food for improving hyperlipidemia and liver oxidative stress responses.