Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3. PMID: 32621392
Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been proposed to play a role in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pathophysiology. We aim to evaluate our implementation of a local protocol for treatment of VDD among patients hospitalized for COVID‐19; to assess the prevalence of VDD among COVID‐19 inpatients, and examine potential associations with disease severity and fatality. Design and Participants: We conducted a retrospective interim audit of a local clinical care pathway for 134 inpatients with COVID‐19. Prevalence of VDD, compliance with local treatment protocol and relationship of baseline serum 25(OH)D with markers of COVID‐19 severity and fatality were analysed. Results: 55.8% of eligible patients received Colecalciferol replacement, albeit not all according to the suggested protocol. Patients admitted to ITU were younger than those managed on medical wards (61.1 years ± 11.8 vs. 76.4 years ± 14.9, respectively, p<0.001), with greater prevalence of hypertension, higher baseline respiratory rate, National Early Warning Score‐2 and C‐Reactive protein level. While mean serum 25(OH)D levels were comparable (p=0.3), only 19% of ITU patients had 25(OH)D levels greater than 50 nmol/L vs. 39.1% of non‐ITU patients (p=0.02). However, there was no association with fatality, potentially due to small sample size and prompt diagnosis and treatment of VDD. Conclusions: Higher prevalence of VDD was observed in patients requiring ITU admission compared to patients managed on medical wards. Larger prospective studies and/or clinical trials are needed to validate and extend our observations.