Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased bladder cancer risk. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased bladder cancer risk: A systematic review and evidence of a potential mechanism.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 04 ;188:134-140. Epub 2019 Jan 14. PMID: 30654104
Janet A Dunn
The development of some cancers is associated with vitamin D deficiency. We suggest that reduced conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D) and the resulting modification of tissue specific immune responses may be key. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is highly immunoresponsive and stimulation of an inflammatory response by intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment prevents recurrence. To assess the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and bladder cancer risk we conducted a systematic review. To test our hypothesis, the synthesis of 1,25(OH)D by human bladder epithelial cell lines (T24/83 and RT4) was examined. Studies were identified from Medline, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane library (limited to English language, humans and 1990-2018). After removal of duplicates, title and abstract review 6 full papers were appraised. Low vitamin D levels were associated with bladder cancer risk in 5/6 of the studies. Both cell lines express the vitamin D receptor, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (1α-OHase) and 24-hydroxylase (24-OHase) mRNA, which was induced by 1,25(OH)D. 24-OHase mRNA was also increased by 25(OH)D indicating 1α-OHase activity. Both cell types expressed TLR1,2,4 and the TLR partners MyD88 and CD14mRNA. Cathelicidin mRNA was undetectable in both cell lines but was induced by 1,25(OH)D and 25(OH)D in RT4 cells. The systematic review demonstrated that bladder cancer risk correlates with serum 25(OH)D levels. In addition, we have shown that transitional epithelial cells express functional vitamin D signaling and can synthesize sufficient 1,25(OH)D to stimulate a local immune response. We suggest that in order to maintain optimal immune surveillance within the bladder adequate levels of serum 25(OH)D are required for direct synthesis of 1,25(OH)D by bladder epithelial cells.