Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Are Associated with Dry Eye Syndrome.
PLoS One. 2016 ;11(1):e0147847. Epub 2016 Jan 25. PMID: 26807908
Sam Young Yoon
BACKGROUND: Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common tear film and ocular surface disease that results in discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. Systemic diseases associated with DES include diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, anxiety, thyroid disease, allergic diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain syndrome, and hyperlipidemia. Interestingly, it has been found that most of these are associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) or inadequate sunlight exposure.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional data analysis, noninstitutionalized adults aged≥19 years (N = 17,542) who participated in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012 were included. Information regarding duration of sunlight exposure was collected from the survey participants. Serum 25(OH)D and zinc levels were measured. The confounding variables were age, gender, sunlight exposure time, region of residence, obesity, serum 25(OH)D level, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, thyroid disorder, atopic dermatitis, history of ocular surgery, regular exercise, and walking exercise.
RESULTS: Mean serum 25(OH)D levels of subjects with and without DES were 16.90± 6.0 and 17.52 ± 6.07 (p<0.001). Inadequate sunlight exposure time (odds ratio [OR], 1.554; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.307-1.848), urban residence (OR, 1.669; 95% CI, 1.456-1.913), indoor occupation (OR, 1.578; 95% CI, 1.389-1.814), and low serum 25(OH)D level (OR, 1.158; 95% CI, 1.026-1.308) were the risk factors for DES. After adjusting for age, sex, obesity, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, thyroid disorder, atopic dermatitis, history of ocular surgery, regular exercise, and occupation, low serum 25(OH)D level (OR, 1.178; 95% CI, 1.010-1.372) and deficient sunlight exposure time (OR, 1.383; 95% CI, 1.094-1.749) were the risk factors for diagnosed DES.
CONCLUSION: Low serum 25(OH)D levels and inadequate sunlight exposure are associated with DES in Korean adults. These results suggest that sufficient sunlight exposure or vitamin D supplementation may be useful in DES treatment.