Low sun exposure habits is associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of hypertension. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Low sun exposure habits is associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of hypertension: a report from the large MISS cohort.
Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2021 Feb ;20(2):285-292. Epub 2021 Feb 18. PMID: 33721253
Pelle G Lindqvist
In prospective observational cohort studies, increasing sun exposure habits have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our aim was to assess possible observational mechanisms for this phenomenon. A written questionnaire was answered by 23,593 women in the year 2000 regarding risk factors for melanoma, including factors of possible interest for hypertension, such as detailed sun exposure habits, hypertension, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, exercise, and chronic high stress. Hypertension was measured by the proxy"use of hypertension medication"2005-2007, and high stress by"need of anti-depressive medication". Sun exposure habits was assessed by the number of `yes' to the following questions; Do you sunbath during summer?, During winter vacation?, Do you travel south to sunbath?, Or do you use sun bed? Women answering 'yes' on one or two questions had moderate and those answering 'yes' on three or four as having greatest sun exposure. The main outcome was the risk of hypertension by sun exposure habits adjusted for confounding. As compared to those women with the greatest sun exposure, women with low and moderate sun exposure were at 41% and 15% higher odds of hypertension (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.3‒1.6, p < 0.001 and OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.1‒1.2, p < 0.001), respectively. There was a strong age-related increased risk of hypertension. Other risk factors for hypertension were lack of exercise (OR 1.36), a non-fair phenotype (OR 1.08), chronic high stress level (OR 1.8), and lack of university education (OR 1.3). We conclude that in our observational design sun exposure was associated with a dose-dependent reduced risk of hypertension, which might partly explain the fewer deaths of cardiovascular disease with increasing sun exposure.