Low vitamin D at ICU admission is associated with cancer, infections, acute respiratory insufficiency, and liver failure.
Nutrition. 2019 04 ;60:235-240. Epub 2018 Oct 24. PMID: 30682545
Tatyanne Ln Gomes
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with comorbidities and poor prognosis. However, this association in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) within the first 48 h after ICU admission are associated with prognostic indicators (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA] score, Charlson comorbidity index [CCI]), clinical complications, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, mechanical ventilation duration, and mortality.
METHODS: Seventy-one patients were admitted to the ICU, and their concentrations of 25(OH)D in the first 48 h were analyzed. To evaluate the prognostic factors in the ICU, APACHE II scores, SOFA scores, CCI questionnaires, mechanical ventilation time, CRP, and mortality were used.
RESULTS: The mean concentration of 25(OH)D was 17.7± 8.27 ng/mL (range 3.5-37.5 ng/mL), with 91.6% presenting with deficiency at admission. Although no associations were found between serum 25(OH)D concentrations with mechanical ventilation time, CRP, mortality, and APACHE II and SOFA severity scores, we found associations with the CCI when adjusted by age (model 1: odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.34) and by age, sex and body mass index (model 2: OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.10-2.34). In addition, among the comorbidities present, 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with cancer (crude model OR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.21-9.64) and liver disease (crude model OR, 9.64; 95% CI, 2.28-40.60).
CONCLUSION: We found a strong association between 25(OH)D concentrations and the prognostic indicator CCI and clinical complications (acute respiratory insufficiency, acute liver failure, and infections), but no associations with the prognostic indicators APACHE II and SOFA score, CRP, mechanical ventilation duration, or mortality. The main comorbidities associated with low 25(OH)D were cancer and liver disease, suggesting that the determination of 25(OH)vitamin D is relevant during the ICU stay.