Lupeol inhibits LPS-induced neuroinflammation in cerebellar cultures and induces neuroprotection associated to the modulation of astrocyte response and expression of neurotrophic and inflammatory factors.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 May ;70:302-312. Epub 2019 Mar 7. PMID: 30852286
Markley Silva Oliveira-Junior
In the central nervous system (CNS), neuroinflammation, especially that modulated by the cell response of astrocytes and microglia, is associated with damage to neurons in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and, Multiple Sclerosis. Lupeol is a dietary triterpene that has demonstrated biological activities as antioxidant. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of lupeol in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation in primary cerebellar cultures. Cultures were obtained from 6-day-old Wistar rats, subjected to inflammatory damage with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL) and treated with lupeol (0.1 μM). We observed, after a 48-hour treatment, through Fluorjade-B staining and immunocytochemistry (ICQ) for βIII-tubulin, that lupeol induced neuroprotection in cultures submitted to inflammatory damage. On the other hand, through ICQ for GFAP, it was possible to observe that lupeol modulated the astrocyte morphology for Bergmann glia-like phenotype and, especially for velate astrocyte-like phenotype, both phenotypes associated with the neuroprotective profile. Moreover, RT-qPCR analysis showed that lupeol induced the down-regulation of the mRNA expression for proinflammatory markers TNF, iNOS and NLRP3, as well as the production of nitric oxide (method of Greiss), which were up-regulated by LPS, and also induced up-regulation of the mRNA expression for arginase and IL-6 mRNA. In addition, lupeol induced up-regulation of mRNA expression for neurotrophins GDNF and NGF and also for the sonic hedgehog-Gli pathway. Together, these results lead to the conclusion that lupeol inhibits neuroinflammation in cerebellar cultures and induces neuroprotection associated with the modulation of astrocyte response and expression of neurotrophic and inflammatory factors.