Luteolin and apigenin derived glycosides from Alphonsea elliptica abrogate LPS-induced inflammatory responses in human plasma.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Apr 20 ;275:114120. Epub 2021 Apr 20. PMID: 33857595
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Numerous Alphonsea species including Alphonsea elliptica (mempisang) leaves and fruits are indigenously used in inflammatory conditions such as postpartum swelling and rheumatism in southeast Asian countries. In our previous in-vitro findings, A. elliptica methanol extract exhibited platelet-activating factor inhibition, suggesting the presence of phyto-constituents with anti-inflammatory potential.
AIM OF THE STUDY: However, so far there is no literature available on the anti-inflammatory activity of this species. Henceforth, based on the above background and our previous laboratory findings, we hypothesize that phytoconstituents of A. elliptica could possess anti-inflammatory potential against inflammatory mediators including prostaglandin-E(PGE), cyclooxegenase-2 (COX-2) and cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vacuum and column chromatography techniques were employed for the isolation of phytoconstituents. The structure elucidation was carried out using HRESI-MS,H andC-NMR analysis and compared with the published literature. For cytotoxicity analysis, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated against the levels of PGE, COX-2, IL-1β and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human plasma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS: Unprecedentedly, chromatographic purification of methanolic leaves extract afforded five flavones namely vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, schaftoside with three flavanols; kaempferol, myricetin and rutin from A elliptica. In cell viability analysis, isolates did not present cytotoxicity up to 50 μM. In anti-inflammatory evaluation, orientin and isoorientin exhibited strong (≥70%), while isovitexin and vitexin produced strong to moderate (50-69%) PGE, COX-2, IL-1β and IL-6 inhibition at 25 and 50 μM. Isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin showed significant (p < 0.05) and concentration-dependent PGEinhibition with ICvalues (μM) of 11.40, 14.71, 17.70 and 20.58 against indomethacin (8.80). Furthermore, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin produced significant concentration-dependent inhibition with ICvalues (μM) of COX-2: 7.13, 9.51, 12.81, 16.61; IL-1β 4.80, 6.20, 10.85, 14.51; IL-6: 4.01, 5.90, 11.51 and 14.88 as compared to dexamethasone: 5.29, 2.93, 3.72, respectively (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Conclusively, isolated phytoconstituents are reported for the first time from the A. elliptica. Moreover, isovitexin, vitexin orientin and isoorientin abrogated LPS-induced inflammatory responses in human plasma at non-cytotoxic concentrations.