Luteolin Exerts NeuroprotectionModulation of the p62/Keap1/Nrf2 Pathway in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
Front Pharmacol. 2019 ;10:1551. Epub 2020 Jan 21. PMID: 32038239
Upregulation of neuronal oxidative stress is involved in the progression of secondary brain injury (SBI) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, we investigated the potential effects and underlying mechanisms of luteolin on ICH-induced SBI. Autologous blood and oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) were used to establishandmodels of ICH, respectively. Luteolin treatment effectively alleviated brain edema and ameliorated neurobehavioral dysfunction and memory loss. Also,, we found that luteolin promoted the activation of the sequestosome 1 (p62)/kelch-like enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase (ECH)-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway by enhancing autophagy and increasing the translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. Meanwhile, luteolin inhibited the ubiquitination of Nrf2 and increased the expression levels of downstream antioxidant proteins, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH): quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). This effect of luteolin was also confirmed, which was reversed by the autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ). Additionally, we found that luteolin inhibited the production of neuronal mitochondrial superoxides (MitoSOX) and alleviated neuronal mitochondrial injury, as indicatedtetrachloro-tetraethylbenzimidazol carbocyanine-iodide (JC-1) staining and MitoSOX staining. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that luteolin enhances autophagy and anti-oxidative processes in bothandmodels of ICH, and that activation of the p62-Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, is involved in such luteolin-induced neuroprotection. Hence, luteolin may represent a promising candidate for the treatment of ICH-induced SBI.