Luteolin reduces adipose tissue macrophage inflammation and insulin resistance in postmenopausal obese mice.
J Nutr Biochem. 2019 Sep ;71:72-81. Epub 2019 Jun 20. PMID: 31302373
Previously, we showed that loss of ovarian function in mice fed high-fat diet exacerbated insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. In the current study, we tested whether consumption of luteolin, an anti-inflammatory flavonoid, could mitigate adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obese ovariectomized mice. Nine-week-old ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet, high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 0.005% luteolin (HFD+L) for 16 weeks. Results showed no difference in body weight or fat mass between mice fed HFD+L and those fed HFD. However, luteolin supplementation resulted in lower CD11cmacrophages in gonadal adipose tissue, as well as a trend toward lower macrophage infiltration. Luteolin supplementation also significantly lowered mRNA expression of inflammatory and M1 markers MCP-1, CD11c, TNF-α and IL-6, while maintaining expression of M2 marker MGL1. Consistent with this, the in vitro luteolin treatment, with or without the presence of estrogen, inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced polarization of RAW 264.7 cells toward M1 phenotype. We further found that luteolin supplementation protected mice from insulin resistance induced by HFD consumption; this improved insulin resistance was correlated with reductions in CD11cadipose tissue macrophages. Taken together, these findings indicate that dietary luteolin supplementation attenuates adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance found in mice with loss of ovarian function coupled with an HFD intake, and this effect may be partly mediated through suppressing M1-like polarization of macrophages in adipose tissue. These results have clinical implication in implementing dietary intervention for prevention of metabolic syndrome associated with postmenopause and obesity.