Antimicrobial and Anti-Biofilm Activities of Citrus sinensis and Moringa oleifera Against the Pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.
Cureus. 2020 Dec 28 ;12(12):e12337. Epub 2020 Dec 28. PMID: 33520533
Context The plantLam (Moringaceae), generally termed as drumstick tree, andLinn (Rutaceae) fruit have the ability to treat multiple human infections. A biofilm is none other than a complicated microbial community whose nature is greatly resistant to antimicrobial elements. The development of biofilms in abiotic and biotic surfaces has a connection with higher levels of mortality and morbidity. Along with that, it is regarded as a vital element of bacterial pathogenicity. Aim The present study evaluated the inhibitory effect and anti-biofilm activity of and extracts against those of pathogenic andMaterials and methods Two plant materials were collected from the local market of Tabuk city and two human pathogenic microbial strains were used in the study: and. Further, a series of morphological, physiological, and conventional biochemical tests were performed to identify the selected microorganisms. In addition to this, the study conducted the following tests: antibiotic sensitivity test, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL), and methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) production, biofilm formation in 96-well microtiter plates, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination, the effect of sub-MICs ofextract andextract on the viability of test bacteria, and finally, measurement of the inhibition of biofilm. Results A remarkable result of the research is that the peel extract ofand the flesh extract ofefficiently inhibited biofilm formation by the addition of sub-inhibitory concentrations of (1/16 x MIC - 1/2 x MIC) MRSA and ESBL, respectively.shows high resistance to piperacillin (85.0%). Similarly, the resistance of MRSA was also high (65%) against gentamycin and amikacin antibiotics. Regarding ESBL, 12 (60%) isolates showed confirmed positive and 45% ofshowed MRSA activity. On observing the 12 ESβL-positive, it was found that five strains (PS1, PS4, PS6, PS8, and PS11) have formed strong biofilm, methicillin-resistantwhile four strains showed strong biofilm activity (SA2, SA4, SA5, and SA8). The MIC ofextract andextract against strong biofilm producers had a range of 50-2000µg/ml concentration after overnight incubation. The study results revealed that the antibiofilm activity comparatively showed the extract ofwas better than against the mixed culture (PS1+SA8, PS6+SA2, and PS8+SA4). Hence, it is recommended to use M. oleifera as an option to monitor the development of microbial biofilms or as a model for looking for better medicines. Conclusion The presence of antimicrobial activity found inandextracts offers convincing evidence of their likely action as antimicrobial metabolites against the studied microorganism. Anti-biofilm assay findings have shown thatandextracts have effectively blocked MRSA and ESBL development in the biofilm matrix.