Prevention of melamine-induced hepatorenal impairment by an ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera: Changes in KIM-1, TIMP-1, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation-related genes.
Gene. 2020 Aug 26:145083. Epub 2020 Aug 26. PMID: 32860902
Yasmina M Abd-Elhakim
BACKGROUND: /aims Melamine (ML) is a common food adulterant and contaminant. Moringa oleifera is a well-known medicinal plant with many beneficial biological properties. This study investigated possible prophylactic and therapeutic activity of an ethanolic extract of M. oleifera (MEE) against ML-induced hepatorenal damage.
METHOD: Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were orally administered distilled water, MEE (800 mg/kg bw), ML (700 mg/kg bw), MEE/ML (prophylactically) or MEE+ML (therapeutically). Hepatic aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphate (ALP) in plasma were measured. Serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, protein, albumin, and globulin contents were also assayed, and urea and creatinine levels determined. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in serum levels were quantified. Complementary histological and histochemical evaluation of renal and hepatic tissues was conducted, and expression of oxidative stress (GPx and CAT) and apoptosis related genes, p53 and Bcl-2, in hepatic tissue were assessed. In parallel, transcriptional expression of inflammation and renal injury-related genes, including kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α (in the kidney tissue were determined.
RESULTS: ML caused significant increases in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, urea, and creatinine. Further, ML treated rats showed significant reductions in serum levels of protein, albumin, globulin, GPx, and CAT. Distinct histopathological damage and disturbances in glycogen and DNA content in hepatic and renal tissues of ML treated rats were observed. KIM-1, TIMP-1, and TNF-α gene expression was significantly upregulated in kidney tissue. Also, GPx, CAT, and Bcl-2 genes were significantly downregulated, and p53 was significantly upregulated in liver tissue after ML treatment. MEE significantly counteracted the ML-induced hepatorenal damage primarily for co-exposed rats.
CONCLUSION: MEE could be an effective therapeutic supplement for treatment of ML-induced hepato-renal damage, probably via modulating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.