Beneficial Fatty Acid Ratio ofL. (Chia Seed) Potentially Inhibits Adipocyte Hypertrophy, and Decreases Adipokines Expression and Inflammation in Macrophage.
Foods. 2020 Mar 22 ;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 22. PMID: 32235695
The present study aimed to determine the role ofL., (chia seed) fatty acid content in adipocyte lipid accumulation and human macrophage immunoregulatory potential. Chia seed fatty acid was extracted using hexane by the cold percolation method. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a 3:1 ratio of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acid composition and it was more beneficial for human health. We treated it with increasing concentrations (0-6.4μg/mL) of chia seed fatty acid extract to determine the cytotoxicity on the preadipocytes and macrophage; no significant cytotoxicity was observed. Chia seed, in 0.2 and 0.4 μg/mL doses, significantly arrested adipocyte hypertrophy and macrophage foam cell development. The gene expression levels of adipocyte confirmed the increased expression of adipocyte mitochondrial thermogenesis related genes, such as uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARγC1α) and PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16); and the down regulated expression of the lipid synthesis related gene sterol regulatory element binding of protein-1c (SREBP-1c). In addition, adipogenesis related genes, such as the proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα) expressions, have been down regulated by chia seed treatment. Macrophage treated with chia seed-treated adipocyte condition media significantly inhibited the obesity associated inflammatory genes and protein expression levels, such as monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), prostaglandins E2, interleukin-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In conclusion, a 3:1 ratio of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acid composition of chia seed fatty acid content potentially inhibits lipid accumulation, and enhanced fatty acid oxidation, via UCP-1 and PRDM16 expression. Macrophage recruitment to adipocyte and the development ofobesity associated inflammation was suppressed by chia seeds.