Magnolol Ameliorates Behavioral Impairments and Neuropathology in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 ;2020:5920476. Epub 2020 Jul 3. PMID: 32714487
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory loss. Magnolol (MN), the main active ingredient of, possesses anti-AD effects in several experimental models of AD. In this study, we aimed to explore whether MN could ameliorate the cognitive deficits in TgCRND8 transgenic mice and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms. Male TgCRND8 mice were orally administered with MN (20 and 40 mg/kg) daily for 4 consecutive months, followed by assessing the spatial learning and memory functions using the open-field, radial arm maze, and novel object recognition tests. The results demonstrated that MN (20 and 40 mg/kg) could markedly ameliorate the cognitive deficits in TgCRND8 mice.In addition, MN significantly increased the expression of postsynaptic density protein 93 (PSD93), PSD-95, synapsin-1, synaptotagmin-1, synaptophysin (SYN), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), while markedly reduced the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), IL-6, IL-1, A, and A, and modulated the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and phosphorylation. Immunofluorescence showed that MN significantly suppressed the activation of microglia (Iba-1) and astrocytes (GFAP) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of TgCRND8 mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that MN could significantly increase the ratios of p-GSK-3(Ser9)/GSK-3, p-Akt (Ser473)/Akt, and p-NF-B p65/NF-B p65. These findings indicate that MN exerted cognitive deficits improving effects via suppressing neuroinflammation, amyloid pathology, and synaptic dysfunction through regulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3and NF-B pathways, suggesting that MN is a promising naturally occurring polyphenol worthy of further developing into a therapeutic agent for AD treatment.