Inhibitory Effect of TNF-alpha Produced by Macrophages Stimulated with Grifola frondosa Extract (ME) on the Growth of Influenza A/Aichi/2/68 Virus in MDCK Cells.
Pharm Biol. 2010 Apr;48(4):469-81. PMID: 19051344
We investigated the inhibitory effect of the conditioned medium (CM) from P338D1 (D1) cells, a murine macrophage cell line, stimulated for 10 hours with a fixed dose (100 mug/ml) of the extracts from the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa (ME) or its ultra filtration-based fractions (MFs), on the growth of influenza A/Aichi/2/68 virus in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Direct addition of ME and 3 kinds of MFs (MF1, MF2 and MF3) to the infected cells had no obvious inhibitory effect. However, virus yields were reduced in the presence of CMs. Notably, the inhibitory effect of the CM prepared by using MF2 (molecular weight of 30 Kd to 100 Kd) was the strongest (28% reduction compared to the control). RT-PCR and ELISA assays showed that the CMs could induce the expression of TNF-alpha mRNA in D1 cells leading to production of TNF-alpha, known as an antiviral cytokine. These findings suggest that ME and MFs (especially MF-2) might induce the production of certain factors, including TNF-alpha, which are responsible for the inhibition of viral growth in vitro.