Mangiferin ameliorates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Mangiferin ameliorates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through APAP-Cys and JNK modulation.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Jun 15 ;117:109097. Epub 2019 Jun 15. PMID: 31212128
An overdose of the most popular analgesic, acetaminophen (APAP), is one of the leading causes of acute liver failure. It is well established that glutathione is exhausted by APAP-reactive intermediate N‑acetyl‑p‑benzoquinone-imine (NAPQI). This leads to elevated phosphorylated-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), which further activates reactive oxygen species (ROS), initiates an inflammatory response, and finally leads to severe hepatic injury. The present study was conducted to investigate theprotective role of mangiferin (MAN), a naturally occurring xanthone and anti-oxidant, on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with or without MAN at 1 h prior to APAP challenge. MAN was administered at a dose of 12.5-50 mg/kg along with APAP at a dose of 400 mg/kg. According to the ALT/AST ratio, 25 mg/kg MAN was the most potent dose for further experiments. Serum ALT and AST depletion were observed in APAP + MAN (25 mg/kg)-treated mice at 6, 12, and 24 h. Early (1 h after APAP treatment) GSH depletion by APAP overdose was restored by MAN treatment, which reduced APAP-Cys adduct formation and promoted protection. p-JNK downregulation and AMPK activation were observed in MAN-treated mice, which could mechanistically reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. MAN up-regulated liver GSH and SOD and reduced lipid peroxidation. HO-1 protein and p47 phoxmRNA expression indicated that MAN regulated oxidative stress along with JNK deactivation. The expression of inflammatory response genes TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, CXCL-1, and CXCL-2 reached the basal levels after MAN treatment. mRNA, protein, and serum levels of IL-1β were reduced, and NF-κB expressionwas similar to that of the MAN-treated APAP mice. MAN post-treatment (1 h after APAP treatment) also protected the mice from hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, MAN had a protective and therapeutic role in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by improving the metabolism of acetaminophen and APAP-Cys adduct formation followed by JNK-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation.