Maternal exercise during pregnancy affects mitochondrial enzymatic activity and biogenesis in offspring brain.
Int J Neurosci. 2012 Dec 11. Epub 2012 Dec 11. PMID: 23227820
aDepartment of Physical Education, Dankook University , Yongin 448-701 , Korea.
Abstract The present study addresses whether exercise during pregnancy in mouse alters mitochondrial function in the brains of the resultant offspring. We divided pregnant mice into 4 groups: a control group (CON), and groups of mice that exercised for 20 (E20m), 30 (E30m), and 40 min per day (E40m). The pregnant mice ran on a treadmill at 12 m/min, 5 days/week for a duration of 3 weeks. The protein expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va (CVa) was downregulated in the offspring of the E20m group, unlike that in the control animals, while CVa expression was reservedin the E40m neonates. The F1-ATPase catalytic core (Core) protein expression levels were the highest in the E40m group neonates. Complex I, IV, and ATPase activities were significantly lower in the E20m group than that in the control group neonates and were reserved in the E30m and E40m group neonates. The activities of citrate synthase (CS) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were consistent with those of complex I, IV, and ATPase. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed high levels of expression in the E40m neonates compared to the other groups. MDA levels in E40m neonates were higher than that in the controls, but were lower than that in the E20m neonates. Finally, 40min/day of maternal exercise improved mitochondrial function inthe resultant pups and was concomitant with brain-derived trophic factor induction in the hippocampus, thereby functionally improving short-term memory.