From the Table to the Tumor: The Role of Mediterranean and Western Dietary Patterns in Shifting Microbial-Mediated Signaling to Impact Breast Cancer Risk.
Nutrients. 2019 Oct 24 ;11(11). Epub 2019 Oct 24. PMID: 31652909
Tiffany M Newman
Diet is a modifiable component of lifestyle that could influence breast cancer development. The Mediterranean dietary pattern is considered one of the healthiest of all dietary patterns. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet protects against diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Reported consumption of a Mediterranean diet pattern was associated with lower breast cancer risk for women with all subtypes of breast cancer, and a Western diet pattern was associated with greater risk. In this review, we contrast the available epidemiological breast cancer data, comparing the impact of consuming a Mediterranean diet to the Western diet. Furthermore, we will review the preclinical data highlighting the anticancer molecular mechanism of Mediterranean diet consumption in both cancer prevention and therapeutic outcomes. Diet composition is a major constituent shaping the gut microbiome. Distinct patterns of gut microbiota composition are associated with the habitual consumption of animal fats, high-fiber diets, and vegetable-based diets. We will review the impact of Mediterranean diet on the gut microbiome and inflammation. Outside of the gut, we recently demonstrated that Mediterranean diet consumption led to distinct microbiota shifts in the mammary gland tissue, suggesting possible anticancer effects by diet on breast-specific microbiome. Taken together, these data support the anti-breast-cancer impact of Mediterranean diet consumption.