Melatonin-induced increase in sensitivity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to sorafenib is associated with reactive oxygen species production and mitophagy.
J Pineal Res. 2016 Aug 2. Epub 2016 Aug 2. PMID: 27484637
Effects of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are frequently transient due to tumor-acquired resistance, a phenotype that could be targeted by other molecules to reduce this adaptive response. Because melatonin is known to exert antitumor effects in HCC cells, this study investigated whether and how melatonin reduces resistance to sorafenib. Susceptibility to sorafenib (10 nM to 50µM) in the presence of melatonin (1 and 2 mM) was assessed in HCC cell lines HepG2, HuH7 and Hep3B. Cell viability was reduced by sorafenib from 1 µM in HepG2 or HuH7 cells, and 2.5 µM in Hep3B cells. Co-administration of melatonin and sorafenib exhibited a synergistic cytotoxic effect on HepG2 and HuH7 cells, while Hep3B cells displayed susceptibility to doses of sorafenib that had no effect when administrated alone. Co-administration of 2.5 µM sorafenib and 1 mM melatonin induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells, increasing PARP hydrolysis and BAX expression. We also observed an early colocalization of mitochondria with lysosomes, correlating with the expression of mitophagy markers PINK1 and Parkin and a reduction of mitofusin-2 and mtDNA compared with sorafenib administration alone. Moreover, increased reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were elicited by drug combination, suggesting their contribution to mitophagy induction. Interestingly, Parkin silencing by siRNA to impair mitophagy significantly reduced cell killing, PARP cleavage and BAX expression. These results demonstrate that the pro-oxidant capacity of melatonin and its impact on mitochondria stability and turnover via mitophagy increase sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of sorafenib. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.