Activation of SIRT1/PGC 1α/SIRT3 pathway by melatonin provides protection against mitochondrial dysfunction in isoproterenol induced myocardial injury.
Heliyon. 2020 Oct ;6(10):e05159. Epub 2020 Oct 13. PMID: 33088945
Aims: Preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and enhancing mitochondrial health and biogenesis is a crucial therapeutic approach to ameliorate injury following acute myocardial infarction. Although the antioxidant role of melatonin against ischemia/reperfusion injury has been reported, the exact mechanism of protection,, remains poorly understood. This study aims to identify and elaborate upon mechanism of melatonin protection of rat cardiac mitochondria against acute myocardial infarction.
Main methods: Rats were pre-treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.); intraperitoneally, i.p.) before isoproterenol bitartrate (ISO) administration (25 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) subcutaneously,s.c.) and their effect on rat heart mitochondrial structure and function was studied. Biochemical changes in activity of biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes as well as Krebs' cycle enzymes were analyzed. Gene expression studies and Isothermal titration calorimetric studies with pure catalase and ISO were also carried out.
Key findings: Melatonin was shown to reduce ISO induced oxidative stress, by stimulating superoxide dismutase activity and removing the inhibition of Krebs' cycle enzymes. Herein we report for the first time in rat model that melatonin activates the SIRT1-PGC-1α-SIRT3 signaling pathways after ISO administration, which ultimately induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Melatonin exhibited significant protection of mitochondrial architecture and topology along with increased calcium ion permeability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by ISO. Isothermal calorimetric studies revealed that melatonin binds to ISO molecules and sequesters them from the reaction thereby limiting their interaction with catalase along with occupying the binding sites of catalase themselves.
Significance: Activation of SIRT1-PGC-1α-SIRT3 pathway by melatonin along with its biophysical properties prevents ISO induced mitochondrial injury in rat heart.