Melittin ameliorates endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Melittin Ameliorates Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Inhibiting Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Cell Death in Mice.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021 ;2021:8843051. Epub 2021 Jan 4. PMID: 33488946
Sepsis-related acute kidney injury (AKI) is a worldwide health problem, and its pathogenesis involves multiple pathways. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin that induces systemic inflammatory responses. Melittin, a main constituent of bee venom, exerts several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions. However, whether melittin protects against endotoxin-induced AKI remains undetermined. Here, we aimed to examine the potential action of melittin on LPS-induced renal injury and explore the mechanisms. We showed that acute renal failure and structural damage after injection of LPS were markedly attenuated by administration of melittin. The peptide also suppressed expression of markers of direct tubular damage in kidneys of the LPS-treated mice. Mechanistically, melittin reduced systemic and renal levels of cytokines and inhibited renal accumulation of immune cells with concomitant suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B pathway. Increased amounts of lipid peroxidation products after LPS treatment were largely decreased by melittin. Additionally, the peptide decreased expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 and enhanced nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2-mediated antioxidant defenses. Moreover, melittin inhibited apoptotic and necroptotic cell death after LPS treatment. Lastly, we showed that melittin improved the survival rate of LPS-injected mice. These results suggest that melittin ameliorates endotoxin-induced AKI and mortality through inhibiting inflammation, oxidative injury, and apoptotic and necroptotic death of tubular epithelial cells.