Menstrual problems in adolescence: relationship to serum vitamins A and E, and systemic inflammation.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2019 Nov 16. Epub 2019 Nov 16. PMID: 31734759
BACKGROUND: Vitamin status and inflammatory mechanisms may be related to menstrual cycle abnormalities. We investigated the associations between serum fat soluble vitamin (vitamins A and E) concentrations and biomarkers of inflammation and antioxidant status with menstrual characteristics, primary dysmenorrhea (PD) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in healthy adolescents.
METHODS: A total of 897 adolescent girls either suffering from PMS (n = 134), PD (n = 322), PMS and PD (n = 293) or healthy adolescents (n = 148) were recruited. Serum vitamin A and E, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), antibody titers to Hsp27 (anti-Hsp27), serum prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB), WBC, mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width (PDW) and RBC distribution width (RDW) were measured. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and RDW-to-platelet ratio (RPR) were calculated.
RESULTS: Girls with long bleeding periods had lower concentrations of serum vitamin E compared to those who reported a normal period duration. There were significantly differences between the groups reporting oligomenorrhea, regular menses and polymenorrhea with respect to NLR, RPR, MPV and PDW. Logistic regression demonstrated that the presence of both PMS and PD was positively related to higher serum hs-CRP, PAB and NLR, while serum vitamin A level was inversely related to the presence of PMS.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that serum vitamin A, hs-CRP, PAB and NLR are significantly associated with the presence of PMS and PD. Inflammatory processes may contribute to the etiology, symptoms and severity of menstrual disorders. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate the possibility of targeting oxidative stress and inflammatory process for the amelioration of menstrual symptoms.