Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and the risk of depression: A meta-analysis of observational studies.
J Affect Disord. 2018 Nov 6 ;245:348-355. Epub 2018 Nov 6. PMID: 30419536
BACKGROUND: It remains inconsistent whether sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption increases the risk of depression. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between SSBs consumption and the risk of depression.
METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles published up to June 2018. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the fixed-effects model or random effect model based on heterogeneity test.
RESULTS: 10 observational studies involving 37,131 depression cases among 365,289 participants were included. The combined risk of depression for the highest versus lowest consumption of SSBs was 1.31 (95% CI 1.24-1.39). The findings were consistent in the cross-sectional studies (RR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.26-1.52) as well as in the cohort studies (RR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.19-1.41) A nonlinear dose-response relationship was found (P = 0.0103) for depression risk and SSBs consumption. Compared with SSBs nondrinkers, those who drank the equivalent of 2 cups/day of cola might increase the risk of depression by 5% (RR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09). And the equivalent of 3cans/day of cola might have approximately 25% higher risk of depression.
LIMITATIONS: 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis, of which only 4 were cohort studies, and more cohort studies need to be performed in the future.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicates that SSBs consumption might be associated with a modestly higher risk of depression. The results need to be further confirmed in the future.