The Multifunctional Effects of Nobiletin and Its Metabolites In Vivo and In Vitro.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016 ;2016:2918796. Epub 2016 Sep 27. PMID: 27761146
Nobiletin (NOB) chemically known as 5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone is a dietary polymethoxylated flavonoid found in Citrus fruits. Recent evidences show that NOB is a multifunctional pharmaceutical agent. The various pharmacological activities of NOB include neuroprotection, cardiovascular protection, antimetabolic disorder, anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation. These events may be underpinned by modulation of signaling cascades, including PKA/ERK/MEK/CREB, NF-κB, MAPK, Ca(2+)/CaMKII, PI3K/Akt1/2, HIF-1α, and TGFβ signaling pathways. The metabolites may exhibit stronger beneficial effects than NOB on diseases pathogenesis. The biological activities of NOB have been clarified on many systems. This review aims to discuss the pharmacological effects of NOB with specific mechanisms of actions. NOB may become a promising candidate for potential drug development. However, further investigations of NOB on specific intracellular targets and clinical trials are still needed, especially for in vivo medical applications.