Effect of fermented milk from Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris strain JFR1 on Salmonella invasion of intestinal epithelial cells.
J Dairy Sci. 2019 Aug ;102(8):6802-6819. Epub 2019 Jun 13. PMID: 31202650
J S Zhang
The process of fermentation contributes to the organoleptic properties, preservation, and nutritional benefits of food. Fermented food may interfere with pathogen infections through a variety of mechanisms, including competitive exclusion or improving intestinal barrier integrity. In this study, the effect of milk fermented with Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris JFR1 on Salmonella invasion of intestinal epithelial cell cultures was investigated. Epithelial cells (HT29-MTX, Caco-2, and cocultures of the 2) were treated for 1 h with Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris JFR1 fermented milk before infection with Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica Typhimurium. Treatment with fermented milk resulted in increased transepithelial electrical resistance, which remained constant for the duration of infection (up to 3 h), illustrating a protective effect. After gentamicin treatment to remove adhered bacterial cells, enumeration revealed a reduction in numbers of intracellular Salmonella. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR data indicated a downregulation of Salmonella virulence genes hilA, invA, and sopD after treatment with fermented milk. Fermented milk treatment of epithelial cells also exhibited an immunomodulatory effect reducing the production of proinflammatory IL-8. In contrast, chemically acidified milk (glucono delta-lactone) failed to show the same effect on monolayer integrity, Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, and gene expression as well as immune modulation. Furthermore, an oppA knockout mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium infecting treated epithelial cells did not show suppressed virulence gene expression. Collectively, these results suggest that milk fermented with Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris JFR1 is effective in vitro in the reduction of Salmonella invasion into intestinal epithelial cells. A functional OppA permease in Salmonella is required to obtain the antivirulence effect of fermented milk.